Situated in the middle of South-West Asia and with a population of 130 crore, India has made this identity due to the diversity of its culture, history and ethnic origin, whose 28 states and 8 republics are world famous for their culture and each state has a different climate. Attracts its tourists likewise differs from each other for the costumes and language here. India borders Pakistan to the west, and Afghanistan to its northwest, China, Nepal and Bhutan to the north, Bangladesh to the east, and Myanmar to the northeast. It is surrounded by sea on three sides. India is bounded by the Bay of Bengal in the south-east, the Indian Ocean in the south and the Arabian Sea in the south-west.
India is one of the world's oldest civilizations, with a diverse Indian topography bordered by the great Himalayas in the north, or cold and white salt deserts to the south, or between the Bay of Bengal in the east and the Arabian Sea in the west. Be it the Indian Ocean or the meadows and lakes and beautiful waterfalls add to the interest of the tourists. It covers an area of 32, 87,263 sq km which makes India stand out from the rest of Asia, as the 7th largest country in the world.
India is divided into five parts according to the geographical location, the first division is North India, the second is South India, the third is West India, the fourth is East India and the fifth is North South India and Central India.
Position and extent of India
- The mainland of India is between 8°4′ to 37°6′ north latitude.
- The longitudinal extent of the mainland of India is from 68° 7′ to 97° 25′ East.
- North South Extension 3214 kms. m. Is.
- East West Extension 2933 kms. m. Is.
- The total length of the land border of India is 15,200 km.
- The total area of India is 32.8 lakh square kilometres.
- India has 2.4% of the world's total land.
- In terms of area, India is ranked seventh in the world.
- India comes entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and the Eastern Hemisphere.
- Tropic of Cancer (23°30′ north latitude) divides India into two parts north-south.
- The difference between the latitudinal and longitudinal extent of India is about 30°.
- India's standard meridian (82° 30′ E longitude) line passes almost through the middle of the country.
- India is surrounded by water from three sides i.e. Arabian Sea (West), Bay of Bengal (East) and Indian Ocean (South). Meaning there is a confluence of Bay of Bengal, Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean near Kanyakumari, the southernmost point of India.
- Kanyakumari is the southernmost point (8° 4′ north latitude) of the Indian mainland.
- The coastal length of the mainland is 6,100 km and the total length of the coast including the islands is 7,516.6 km.
- The plateau region is called peninsular India.
- There is a difference of 2 hours in sunrise between Arunachal Pradesh and Gujarat.
- After the construction of the Suez Canal, about 7,000 km between India and Europe. Distance reduced.
- India's border touches 7 neighbouring countries Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nepal, China, Bhutan, Myanmar and Bangladesh.
- Lakshadweep is located in the Arabian Sea and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are located in the Bay of Bengal.
- Sri Lanka is separated from India by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait.
- Radcliffe between India and Pakistan and McMahon Line between India and China are located.
- Tropic of Cancer passes through 8 states in India. These eight states are Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Tripura and Mizoram. The Tropic of Cancer passes through Bangladesh and Myanmar but does not pass through Pakistan.
Importance of the Situation of India
- India is the seventh largest country in the world on the basis of area.
- Its land range is 15,200 km and 6100 km. m. Has a long coast line.
- Andaman and Nicobar is an important group of islands located in the Bay of Bengal and Lakshadweep is located in the Arabian Sea.
- India is divided into 28 states and 7 union territories.
- India's position in the Indian Ocean is of strategic importance.
- It controls the sea routes between Europe and Africa, Southeast Asia, East Asia and Oceania.
- India's position is very good in terms of sea and land borders.
There are four distinct regions of rainfall:
- Area of high rainfall - 200 cm. m. more than. Area: West Coast, Sub-Himalayan region of North East and Garo, Khasi, Jaintia Hills region of Meghalaya.
- Area of normal rainfall - 100 to 200 cm. m.. Region: Western Ghats, West Bengal, Odisha, Bihar etc.
- Areas of low rainfall 60 to 100 cm. m.. Area: Parts of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and interior of the Deccan Plateau
- Areas of insufficient rainfall - 60 cm. m. fewer. Region: Western parts of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Ladakh and south central parts of India.
The plains of North India become extremely hot in summer. The higher temperature causes the air to heat up and the lower pressure is generated. That low pressure is known as the monsoon trough. On the other hand, the temperature is relatively low over the Indian Ocean, as a result of which high pressure is generated in the region.
Due to this difference in air pressure, winds start moving from high pressure to low pressure or from sea to land. Their direction is completely opposite, that is, from southwest to northeast, because these winds move from the sea to the land and if they carry moisture, then it rains.
El Nio and Southern Oscillation also affect the monsoon.
Global warming is also affecting the climate of India. Disturbances have also arisen in the cycle of the seasons. The cause of world warming is industrialization, urbanization and more increase in the amount of destructive gases like carbon dioxide, chloro-fluorocarbons. It is time for us to stop all this or at least reduce the rate of activities that increase global temperature.
||Festivals that are Celebrated
||December to February
||No precipitation except in coastal areas of Tamil Nadu
||Makar Sankranti, Pongal, Basant Panchami
||March to May
||High temperature hot and dry wind 'Loo'
||Mango rain (Kerala, Karnataka) during Vaishakhi (W. Bengal, Assam)
|Rising Southwest Monsoon
||June to September
||hot and humid
||Rain all over India
|retreating monsoon season
||Humid and hot (October summer)
||Cyclone in Bay of Bengal
||Dussehra, Durga Puja, Diwali
||Self realization, Discreet thinking, Problem solving, Creative thinking, Decision making
||plantation, maintaining biodiversity
The diversity of plants and animals provides us with food, fuel, medicine, shelter and essential substances, without which we cannot survive. This species has evolved over many thousands of years. This valuable diversity is being lost at an alarming rate due to human processes. We can contribute to the conservation of these plant, animal and animal species by adopting many methods. It is very important for us to know the diversity of these plants, animals and microorganisms.
Biodiversity is an abbreviation for biological diversity. In simple words, biodiversity is the total number of genes, species and ecology of an area. It includes (i) genetic diversity, (ii) species diversity and (iii) ecological diversity.
Status of Biodiversity in India
Due to its special status, rich biodiversity is found in India. Although the area of India is only 2.4% of the total land area of the world but biodiversity is about 8% of the total number of world species. About 12% of the world's flora species are found in the Indian forests in the form of 45,000 plants. Two of the world's 12 biodiversity hotspots are located in India. They are the North-Eastern region and the Western Ghats.
Importance of biodiversity
Organisms are interdependent and interrelated in an ecosystem.
The loss of any component in the ecosystem has an adverse effect on other components of the ecosystem.
We get food, water, fiber and fuel from the environment.
It also regulates the climate.
|Types of forests
|tropical evergreen forest
||200 cm more than
||Rosewood, Ebony Mahogany, Rubber, Jack Wood, Bamboo
||Western Ghats, Upper Assam, Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands
||Leaves of these trees do not fall in any particular season Mixed vegetation in dense forests Tree height 60 meters or more
|tropical deciduous forest
||Teak, Bamboo, Sal, Sheesham, Sandalwood, Kher, Kusum, Arjun Mahua, Jamun
||Found throughout the country except the Deccan Plateau, the North Eastern Region, the Western Ghats and some parts of the Eastern Ghats.
||wet season divided into two parts wet and dry
||75 cm fewer
||acacia, acacia cactus, date, palm
||North West India, interior region of peninsular India
||Dry season Long roots, shiny thick and small leaves
||water collected in deltas
||Mangrove or Sundari, Palm, Coconut, Quora, Agar
||Ganges River, Godavari, Krishna, Cauvery Delta of the Sundar Forest, Andaman and Nicovar Islands
||The branches of trees remain submerged in water. Grow in clean and salty water.
||With the decrease in temperature and increase in altitude, different types of vegetation are found.
The need for conservation of biodiversity
We know that biodiversity is the basis of our existence. We look for food, water, shelter and fiber in nature. All these components of ecology are interrelated and interdependent. If any one component is disrupted, it has far-reaching consequences and imbalances in the ecosystem. Plants provide us with food, oxygen, prevent soil weathering, control the weather, etc. Similarly, wildlife also plays an important role in providing a balanced diet. That is why the conservation of biodiversity is very important for the survival of human beings.
Wildlife in india
Wildlife is rich in India. It is estimated that 80% of all identified plant and animal species on Earth are found in India. In 1972, the Wildlife Protection Act was passed to save the wildlife. Today there are 551 wildlife sanctuaries, 96 national parks, 25 lakes, and 15 bio-reserves. Apart from this, there are 33 Botanical Gardens, 275 Zoological Gardens etc.